What situations can lead to cesarean section?
What can affect whether I have a cesarean section or a vaginal birth?
Why is the c-section rate so high?
How does my right to "informed consent" or "informed refusal" relate to these matters?
How can I learn more about my specific situation?
What are some non-medical (elective) reasons for cesarean section?
What are some situations where some caregivers may recommend a cesarean section?
How does planned cesarean compare with unplanned cesarean?
How does planned cesarean compare with vaginal birth?
What is the relationship between care during birth and pelvic floor problems?
What is it like to have a c-section?
Cesarean rates in the U.S. can range from under 10% for some caregivers and birth settings to over 60% for others. This variation occurs for many reasons. One is that caregivers differ in the ways that they support women who are giving birth and in their judgment about when to recommend surgical birth ("practice style"). C-section rates also vary from one birth setting to another due to differences in policies and practices. Because of this variation, your choice of caregiver and choice of birth setting can have a major impact on the type of birth that you will have.
These factors can increase your chances for having a cesarean. But, the section Tips & Tools: C-Section, offers many ideas for reducing the likelihood that they will come into play in your situation.
more about informed consent.)
Whether you wish to plan a vaginal birth or a cesarean section, it is important to make this decision on the basis of complete, accurate, unbiased information.
If your doctor or midwife suggests a c-section and it is not an urgent situation, here are some questions to ask:
Questions to Ask
If you need more information or want to double check what you learn, you can find a comprehensive list of possible benefits and harms of c-section, along with information about how likely they are, in Best Evidence: C-Section. Your caregiver can help answer questions about this information.
Once you have answers to your questions, think about what is most important to you and discuss these goals and preferences with your care provider. With these in mind, weigh the possible benefits of a c-section against the risks and make the decision that feels right for you and your baby.
Current research suggests that pregnancy and some commonly used maternity practices (such as routine episiotomy, a surgical cut made just before birth to widen the opening of the vagina) can contribute to incontinence in the period after the birth. While research supports avoiding whenever possible maternity practices that can harm the pelvic floor, it does not support avoiding vaginal birth itself. In addition, studies find that birthing practices have their strongest effects in the recovery period in the first weeks and months after birth. These effects fall off quickly for nearly all women and disappear for nearly all by about age 50. Incontinence in later life seems to be related to other health and lifestyle factors such as excess weight and smoking.
You can find out more about problems with the belief that cesarean section protects the pelvic floor in Best Evidence: Pelvic Floor Dysfunction. You can learn more about how to prevent and relieve such problems in Tips & Tools: Pelvic Floor Dysfunction.
Profound fear of childbirth: A small proportion of women, both first-time and experienced mothers, have an extreme fear of childbirth. Certainly, almost every expectant mother experiences some degree of fear or apprehension, but here we are talking about something altogether different.
A series of counseling or psychotherapy sessions during pregnancy can help many women overcome their deep fears and give birth vaginally. Continuous support during labor by a trained labor support companion (doula) may be of special value to a woman in this situation. (Options: Labor Support will give you information on doulas.) If you decide to seek counseling, be sure to get help from a trained individual who has both good counseling skills and an understanding of maternity issues.
If you still have deep fears of childbirth despite counseling, you may decide to have a cesarean birth. Be sure to talk this over with your caregiver as early as possible in your pregnancy, and work together to help ensure the safest possible and most satisfying birth.
Other rationales for "cesarean by choice": As attitudes toward cesareans become more casual, and as they are performed more "routinely," you may have thought about planning a cesarean for reasons of convenience. For example, you may wish to schedule your baby's birth date. Or you may think of a cesarean as a pain-free way to give birth. Or perhaps, if labor does not go as smoothly or as quickly as you would like, the idea of a cesarean may appeal to you or your caregiver even if there is no clear medical reason. Before going down this path, it is important to investigate whether this choice truly offers you what you believe it will (such as greater convenience or less pain). And it is also important for you to make an informed decision with full understanding of the trade-offs that are involved.
If you've had a previous cesarean, you would do best to learn all you can about these and other trade-offs involved with this decision and discuss these matters thoroughly with your caregiver before making your decision. Be sure that your caregiver and any others who may be attending your birth agree with your decision.
Unfortunately, it's becoming harder to find a hospital and caregiver who will leave the choice in your hands. If you want to have a VBAC, you may need to search for a caregiver and hospital that will offer you this. In some communities, this may not be available.
To help pregnant women with a previous cesarean understand these matters and make their birth plans, this website has a complete Pregnancy Topic called VBAC or Repeat C-Section.
Prolonged labor or failure to progress: The length of labor varies from woman to woman. Your labor may be short, long, or somewhere in the middle. If your labor is taking longer than average, you may be told that you have prolonged labor.
Caregivers vary in how they might prevent or respond to a slow labor and in their degree of patience with a long labor. For example, some will try to rest the uterus or stimulate stronger contractions with drugs before turning to a cesarean. They may try such things as ensuring that the mother is getting enough fluids or encouraging her to change positions or walk around rather than lying flat on her back. Others will be quicker to turn to a cesarean. As long as you and your baby are doing well, there is no medical reason to decide on a cesarean. It's a good idea to talk with your caregiver, well before labor begins, about how he or she handles a long labor. Then you can think about what you might do if you are faced with this situation.
Taking a long time to get to the point when your cervix is open (dilated) to 4 centimeters or so says nothing about your ability to birth your baby vaginally. Slow or stalled labors after that (in active labor) are more concerning, but even in these cases, most women can have vaginal births.
Having continuous supportive care from a woman trained to help women in labor (doula), or a female friend or family member who is experienced with labor, can help you get through a long and challenging labor. This kind of support can also help meet your partner's needs and help your partner support you.
Baby in breech position: Nearly all babies will take up a head-first position by the end of pregnancy. When the baby is in a buttocks- or feet-first (breech) position, labor poses some increased risks for both mother and baby. Because a cesarean poses its own set of risks, you may want to find a caregiver who has hands-to-belly skills to turn the baby to a head-first position (external version) in the last weeks of pregnancy. Sometimes it is not possible to turn a baby with this technique, and sometimes a turned baby will flip back to a breech position. However, most women who try this technique will go into labor with the baby in a head-first position.
Should your baby continue in the breech position, most caregivers will recommend a cesarean. There are important advantages to cesarean in this situation in comparison with typical hospital ways of handling vaginal breech births, especially lower likelihood of death or serious problems for your baby. On the other hand, vaginal birth avoids risks of surgery for mothers and babies in the present pregnancy and has many advantages for mothers and babies in future pregnancies. (You can learn more about possible problems resulting from cesarean surgery in Best Evidence: C-Section.)
If you find yourself in this situation, you will want to discuss this matter with your caregiver and to learn all you can about these and other specific trade-offs involved with this decision. Be sure that you and your caregiver agree ahead of time about your birth plan. If you decide to plan a vaginal breech birth, it is important that your caregiver and any others who may be attending your birth have skills and experience with this type of birth.
Changes in the fetal heart rate: Certain changes in the fetal heart rate may signal a problem for the baby. When the fetal heart rate is very fast, very slow, or irregular, your caregivers may be concerned about the baby's condition. In some situations, these changes are easy to correct. For example, a doctor or midwife can ask a mother who is lying on her back to move to another position, give her oxygen or fluids, or lower a high dose of synthetic oxytocin (a hormone to strengthen contractions, also called Pitocin). If this cannot be corrected and the baby is not about to be born, a cesarean may be recommended. However, electronic fetal monitors (EFM machines) often suggest that the baby is in trouble when this is not the case. Further testing can help identify which babies may need help.
Multiple births: Giving birth to more than one baby poses unique challenges. However, no well-done research currently supports routine delivery of twins by cesarean section. Most caregivers will recommend a cesarean when there are three or more babies. As always, it's important to learn as much as you can about the expected benefits and risks of cesarean compared with vaginal birth and discuss your individual situation with your caregiver before making your decision. If you are having twins and want to have a vaginal birth, you may need to seek out a caregiver who will support this.
A planned cesarean offers some advantages over an unplanned cesarean (a cesarean that occurs after labor is under way). For example, there may be fewer surgical injuries and fewer infections. The emotional impact of a cesarean that is planned in advance appears to be similar to or somewhat worse than a vaginal birth. By contrast, unplanned cesareans can take a greater emotional toll.
A planned cesarean still involves the risks associated with major surgery. And both planned and unplanned cesareans result in a uterine scar and internal scarring and adhesions. This means women with planned and unplanned cesareans face similar risks in future pregnancies and for problems related to scarring and adhesions at any time
More and more research finds that some practices used at the time of pushing increase the likelihood of pelvic floor injury. Many women experience one or more of these during vaginal birth. You can lower your risk by choosing a caregiver and birth setting with low rates of intervention. These practices include:
A c-section might happen during labor or before labor starts (scheduled c-section). Unless there is a special situation, the woman will be awake during the surgery. Before the surgery starts, there are many preparations:
During the surgery, the woman will have a support person (usually her partner or other family member) next to her on the same side of the curtain. The anesthesiologist will also be on that side of the curtain. After making sure the belly is numb, a doctor and a surgical assistant will begin the surgery. The woman may feel tugging and pulling sensations, especially right before the birth of the baby, but should feel absolutely nothing sharp. (If there is pain or a sharp sensation, the surgery should be stopped immediately so more anesthesia can be given.) It usually takes about 15 minutes from when the surgery begins to when the baby is born. Just before the baby is born, the curtain may be lowered to allow the woman and her support person to watch the baby come out. A nurse will dry and place the baby on a warming table to do a quick check on the baby’s breathing, color, and heart rate.
Most recent page update: 12/11/2012
© 2014 National Partnership for Women & Families. All rights reserved.
Founded in 1918, Childbirth Connection has joined forces with and become a core program of the National Partnership for Women & Families. Together, these two women's health powerhouses are transforming maternity care in the United States.
News and Features
Childbirth Connection has joined forces with and become a core program of the National Partnership for Women & Families.
This interactive timeline highlights our trailblazing work since 1918.
We want all women and babies receive the best possible maternity care.
Check out our resource, "New Cesarean Prevention Recommendations from Obstetric Leaders:What Pregnant Women Need to Know"