Trends in Pharmacologic Relief



In the United States:

1. Hospitals with more than 1,500 births per year



2. Hospitals with 500 to 1,500 births per year



3. Hospitals with less than 500 births per year



Source: Theodore R. Marmor and David M. Krol. Labor pain management in the United States: Understanding patterns and the issue of choice. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2002;186(5):S173-80. [1997 epidural figures combine percentages for both epidural analgesia and newer combined spinal/epidural technique.]

Most recent page update: 11/16/2012


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Founded in 1918, Childbirth Connection has joined forces with and become a core program of the National Partnership for Women & Families. Together, these two women's health powerhouses are transforming maternity care in the United States.
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