References Used to Develop Options: Pelvic Floor
Bazian Ltd. Stress incontinence. Clin Evid 2004;11:2543-57.
Dannecker C, Hillemanns P, Strauss A, Hasbargen U, Hepp H, Anthuber C. Episiotomy and perineal tears presumed to be imminent: randomized controlled trial. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004;83(4):364-8.
Eason E, Labrecque M, Wells G, Feldman P. Preventing perineal trauma during childbirth: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol 2000;95:464-71.
Flynn P, Franiek J, Janssen P, Hannah WJ, Klein MC. How can second-stage management prevent perineal trauma? Can Fam Physician 1997;43:73-84.
Fraser WD, Marcoux S, Krauss I, Douglas J, Goulet C, Boulvain M., The PEOPLE (Pushing Early or Pushing Late with Epidural) Study Group. Multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of delayed pushing for nulliparous women in the second stage of labor with continuous epidural analgesia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;182(5):1165-72.
Gupta JK, Hofmeyr GJ. Position for women during second stage of labour (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2004.
Harvey M-A. Pelvic floor exercises during and after pregnancy: a systematic review of their role in preventing pelvic floor dysfunction. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2003;25(6):487-98.
Hay-Smith EJC, Bø K, Berghmans LCM, Hendriks HJM, de Bie RA, van Waalwijk van Doorn ESC. Pelvic floor muscle training for urinary incontinence. In: The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2004.
Hodnett ED, Gates S, Hofmeyr G J, Sakala C. Continuous support for women during childbirth [PDF]. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD003766. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003766.
Kettle C. Perineal care. Clin Evid 2004;11:1853-71.
Lieberman E, O'Donoghue C. Unintended effects of epidural analgesia: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186(5 suppl):S31-68.
Childbirth Connection. Comparing risks of cesarean and vaginal birth to mothers, babies, and future reproductive capacity: a systematic review. New York: Childbirth Connection, April 2004. [The following study documents are available as PDF files from the Childbirth Connection website: description of methods and sources (including full bibiliography), list of main questions and outcomes (a table of contents for evidence tables), first file of evidence tables, and second file of evidence tables. Latter includes pelvic floor outcomes.]
McGuiness M, Norr K, Nacion K. Comparison between different perineal outcomes on tissue healing. J Nurse Midwifery 1991;36(3):192-8.
Murphy PA, Feiland JB. Perineal outcomes in a home birth setting. Birth 1998;25(4):226-34.
Renfrew MJ, Hannah W, Albers L, Floyd E. Practices that minimize trauma to the genital tract in childbirth: a systematic review of the literature. Birth 1998;25(3):143-60.
Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee. Guidelines for operative vaginal birth. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2004;26(8)747-53.
Thacker SB, Stroup B, Chang M. Continuous electronic heart rate monitoring for fetal assessment during labor (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2004.
Vendittelli F, Tabaste J-L, Janky E. Le massage périnéal ante-partum: revue des essais randomisés. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod 2001;30(6):565-71.
Most recent page update: 2/27/2006
© 2015 National Partnership for Women & Families. All rights reserved.
Founded in 1918, Childbirth Connection has joined forces with and become a core program of the National Partnership for Women & Families. Together, these two women's health powerhouses are transforming maternity care in the United States.
News and Features
Check out our resource, "Hormonal Physiology of Childbearing: Evidence and Implications for Women, Babies, and Maternity Care"
Childbirth Connection has joined forces with and become a core program of the National Partnership for Women & Families.
This interactive timeline highlights our trailblazing work since 1918.
We want all women and babies receive the best possible maternity care.